Vitamin E

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Vitamin E is an antioxidant that is prevalant in many different kinds of foods, fats, and oils. As an antioxidant, this vitamin helps protect cells from free radicals which can cause a variety of serious health conditions such as heart disease and certain types of cancer. Vitamin E helps the human body utilize vitamin K and also helps your body produce red blood cells. Although vitamin E deficiency is uncommon within the United States, signs of vitamin E deficiency include:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Reduction in muscle mass
  • Strange eye movements
  • Vision difficulties
  • Unbalanced walking

It is important to avoid long-term vitamin E deficiency, as this can result in liver and kidney issues. Populations at risk for deficiency include those with Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, and those with specific rare genetic disorders.

Also known as:  Acétate d'Alpha Tocophérol, Acétate d'Alpha Tocophéryl, Acétate de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de DL-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de Tocophérol, Acétate de Tocophéryl, Acétate de Vitamine E, All-Rac-Alpha-Tocophérol, All Rac-Alpha-Tocopherol, Alpha-Tocophérol, Alpha Tocopherol Acetate, Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, Alpha Tocotriénol, Bêta-Tocotriénol, Bêta-Tocophérol, Concentré de Tocotriénol, D-Alpha Tocopherol, D-Alpha Tocophérol, D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Alpha-Tocopherol, D-Alpha-Tocophérol, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acid Succinate, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Succinate, D-Alpha Tocotrienol, D-Alpha Tocotriénol, DL-Alpha-Tocopherol, DL-Alpha-Tocopheryl, DL-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Tocopherol, D-Tocopheryl Acetate, DL-Tocopherol, D-Beta-Tocopherol, D-Bêta-Tocophérol, D-Delta-Tocopherol, D-Delta-Tocophérol, Delta-Tocotriénol, Delta-Tocophérol, D-Gamma-Tocopherol, D-Gamma Tocotrienol, D-Gamma-Tocotriénol, D-Gamma-Tocophérol, DL-Alpha-Tocophérol, DL-Alpha-Tocophéryl, DL-Tocophérol, D-Tocophérol, Fat-Soluble Vitamin, Gamma-Tocotriénol, Gamma-Tocophérol, Mixed Tocopherols, Mixed Tocotrienols, Palm Tocotrienols, Rice Tocotrienols, RRR-Alpha-Tocopherol, RRR-Alpha-Tocophérol, Succinate Acide de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Succinate Acide de Tocophéryl, Succinate de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Succinate de Tocophéryl, Succinate de Vitamine E, Tocopherol, Tocopherol Acetate, Tocophérols Mixtes, Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopheryl Acid Succinate, Tocopheryl Succinate, Tocotrienol, Tocotriénol, Tocotrienol Concentrate, Tocotriénols, Tocotrienols, Tocotriénols de Palme, Tocotriénols de Riz, Tocotriénols Mixtes, Vitamin E Acetate, Vitamin E Succinate, Vitamina E, Vitamine E, Vitamine Liposoluble, Vitamine Soluble dans les Graisses

Diseases and Conditions

Vitamin E is effective for the following conditions:

  • Ataxia associated with vitamin E deficiency
  • Vitamin E deficiency

Vitamin E may be effective for the following conditions:

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Anemia
  • Beta-thalassemia
  • Chemotherapy extravasation
  • Cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity
  • Dementia
  • Dysmennorhea
  • Dyspraxia
  • Glomerulosclerosis
  • Granuloma annulare
  • Huntington's disease
  • Infertility
  • Intracranial and intravencular hemmorhage
  • Nitrate tolerance
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Photoreactive keratectomy
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Physical performance
  • Radiation-induced fibrosis
  • Retrolental fibroplasia
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Sunburn
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • Uveitis

Vitamin E is possibly ineffective for the following conditions:

  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Angina
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Eczema
  • Breast cancer-related hot flashes
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • Cancer
  • Cataracts
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Head and neck cancer
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Hypertension
  • Liver disease
  • Myotonic dystrophy
  • Oral mucosal lesions
  • Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Oral or pharyngeal cancer
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Prostate cancer
  • Respiratory tract infections
  • Retinitis pigmentosa
  • Schizophrenia
  • Scarring

Vitamin E is likely ineffective for the following conditions:

  • Benign breast disease
  • Breast cancer
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Fetal and early infant mortality
  • Lung cancer
  • Overall mortality

There is insufficient information on the effectiveness of vitamin E for the following conditions:

  • Allergies
  • Asthma
  • Bladder cancer
  • Chemotherapy-related infections
  • Diabetes
  • Diabetic neuropathy
  • Gastric cancer
  • H. pylori
  • IgA nephropathy
  • Intermittent claudication
  • Ischemic reperfusion injury
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Lice
  • Liver transplant
  • Melanoma
  • Nocturnal leg cramps
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Osteoporosis
  • Peyronie's disease
  • Preterm labor
  • Restless leg syndrome
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Stretch marks


Vitamin E is likely safe when used appropriately orally or topically. Vitamin E is generally considered to be safe; the tolerable upper intake level is set at 1,000mg per day for healthy people. However, adverse effects are more likely to occur when taking vitamin E in high doses, particularly those exceeding 1,500mg/day even in healthy people. It is likely safe for children, pregnant, and breastfeeding women to use vitamin E orally and appropriately, and under the supervision of a physician. Rare but possible side effects associated with vitamin E include:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Intestinal cramps
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Rash
  • Gonadal dysfunction
  • Creatinuria

Vitamin E has antiplatelet properties, which can cause excessive bleeding; discontinue use at least 2 weeks before surgery.

Medication Interactions

Vitamin E may interact with the following medications:

  • Alkylating agents
  • Anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs such as spirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin)
  • Cyclosporine
  • Cytochrome P450 3A4 substrates such as calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil)
  • Chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine)
  • Antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole)
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Cisapride (Propulsid)
  • Alfentanil (Alfenta)
  • Fentanyl (Sublimaze)
  • Losartan (Cozaar)
  • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  • Midazolam (Versed)
  • Omeprazole (Prilosec)
  • Ondansetron (Zofran)
  • Propranolol (Inderal)
  • Fexofenadine (Allegra)
  • Doxorubicin
  • Statin drugs such as lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), fluvastatin (Lescol), and atorvastatin (Lipitor)
  • Niacin
  • Warfarin (Coumadin)

Supplement and Food Interactions

Vitamin E may interact with the following supplements and foods:

  • Angelica
  • Asafoetida
  • Clove
  • Danshen
  • Garlic
  • Ginger
  • Ginkgo
  • Panax ginseng
  • Horse chestnut
  • Meadowsweet
  • Poplar
  • Quassia
  • Red clover
  • Willow
  • Beta-carotene
  • Iron
  • Omega-6 fatty acids
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin K


Per the recommended daily allowance (RDA), both women and men should consume 15 mg of vitamin E from food. This is equivalent to 22 IU of the RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) or 33 IU of the all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E). Other recommended daily allowances for vitamin E are as follows:

  • For Infants 7-12 months - 6 mg
  • Children 1-3 years - 7 mg
  • Children 4 -8 years -11 mg
  • Older children and adults -15 mg
  • Pregnant women -15 mg
  • Lactating women -19 mg

The recommended upper dosage limit for all forms of supplemental alpha-tocopherol is 1000 mg.


Foods which contain vitamin E include:

  • Wheat germ oil
  • Vegetable oil
  • Cereal grains
  • Animal fats
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Eggs
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables

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