Wine is the natural yeast fermentation product of the juice of grapes that have been sun-ripened. Wine normally contains ten to fourteen percent of alcohol, predominantly as ethanol, which is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Wine contains resveratrol, anthocyanin, and other bio-actives. There are a variety of other antioxidants in wine that can benefit health.
Wine is used orally to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease (CHD), atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction (MI). Wine is also used orally to:
- Reduce the risk of ischemic stroke
- For type 2 diabetes
- To cognitive decline in later life
- For the prevention of Alzheimer's disease
- For anxiety
- Malabsorption syndromes
- As an appetite stimulant
Wine may be applied topically to stimulate wound healing and improve rheumatoid skin ulcerations.
Also known as: Alcohol, Alcool, Ethanol, Éthanol, Extrait de Vin, Red Wine, Vin, Vin Rouge, Vino, Wine Extract
Diseases and Conditions
Wine is likely effective for the following conditions:
- Cardiovascular disease
- Cognitive function
- Congestive heart failure
- H. pylori infection
There is insufficient information to rate the effectiveness of wine for treating Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, cancer, and post-menopausal osteoporosis.
Wine is likely safe when used orally, responsibly, and in moderation.
Wine is possibly unsafe when consumed in excess of one to two five-ounce glasses of wine per day. Drinking large amounts of wine can cause minimal to significant adverse effects.
It is likely unsafe for pregnant and breastfeeding women to consume wine orally.
Wine can lead to several side effects due to its alcohol content including the following:
- Emotional lability
- Perceptual and sensational disturbances
- Lack of coordination and trouble walking
- Central nervous system (CNS) depression
- Respiratory depression
- Abdominal pain
Consuming 3 or more alcoholic drinks per day can lead to the following:
- Physical dependence
- Cardiac myopathy
Other effects of chronic abuse are pancreatitis, hypomagnesemia, skeletal myopathies, Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis, chronic cerebellar syndrome, mouth cancer, esophageal cancer, pharyngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer, and liver cancer.
Wine may interfere with the following medications:
- CNS depressants
- Cimetidine (Tagamet)
- Ranitidine (Zantac)
- Hepatotoxic drugs, such as:
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- Narcotic drugs
- Sulfonamide antibiotics
Supplement and Food Interactions
Wine may interfere with herbs and supplements that have sedative properties, such as:
- California poppy
- Jamaican dogwood
- St. John's wort
- Yerba mansa
The correct dosage of any supplement requires a comprehensive analysis of many factors including your age, sex, health conditions, DNA, andlifestyle.
For reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality, one to two glasses (one hundred twenty to two hundred forty milliliters) per day has been used. Up to four glasses per day has been used to reduce the risk for heart failure. Up to one drink per day has been used to lessen cognitive decline in older men. Between two drinks per week and three or four drinks per day has been used to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy men.
Wine is not regularly found in foods.