Iodine

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Iodine is a nonmetallic trace element needed for the production of the thyroid hormone thyroxine, which is required throughout life for normal growth, neurological development, and metabolism. It is also used during pregnancy to prevent cognitive birth defects.  Insufficient iodine intake impairs the production of thyroid hormones, leading to a range of adverse health disorders with varying degrees of severity. In North America, iodine is often added to salt to reduce iodine deficiency, a common world health problem. Dietary sources of iodine include seaweed, eggs and cow's milk.

Also known as:  Cadexomer Iodine, Diatomic Iodine, I2, Iode, Iode de Cadexomer, Iode Diatomique, Iode Moléculaire, Iode Mono-atomique, Iode de Povidone, Iode de Sodium, Iodide, Iodized Salt, Iodure, Iodure de Potassium, Iodure de Potassium en Solution Saturée, Iodure de Sodium, KI, Lugol's Solution, Molecular Iodine, Monoatomic Iodine, Numéro atomique 53, Periodate de Sodium, Potassium Iodide, Povidone Iodine, Saturated Solution Potassium Iodide, Sel Iodé, Sodium Iodide, Sodium Iodine, Sodium Periodate, Solution de Lugol, SSKI, Yodo

Diseases and Conditions

Iodine is likely effective in the prevention of iodine deficiency. Iodine deficiency often leads to endemic goiters (enlarged thyroid gland). Potassium iodide is effective in the preventing thyoid uptake of radioactive iodine. Potassium iodide should only be used in a radiation emergency. Povidone-iodine solutions are possible effective in reducing the risk of neonatal conjunctivitis when taken during pregnancy as well as endometritis when applied as a surgical scrub before a cesarean delivery. This solution is used during surger to reduce the risk of infection at site of surgery by approximately 40%. Topical iodine may be effective in treating diabetic foot ulcers. Fibrocystic breat disease, mastagia and oral mucositis also hold the possibility of effective treatment with iodine.

Safety

Likely safe when applied orally in appropriate doses or when used to disinfect surgical sites.

Medication Interactions

Do not mix with antithyroid drugs. Exercise caution with ace inhibitors, amiodarone, angiotensisn receptor blockers, lithium, and potassium-sparing diuretics.

Supplement and Food Interactions

None reported.

Dosage

In general, the recommended dietary amount of iodine is 150 mcg/day, however recommended amounts vary based on circumstances:

  • Pregnant women: recommended dietary amount is 220 mcg/day.
  • Nursing women: recommended dietary amount is 220 mcg/day, maximum dietary amount: 1100 mcg/day.
  • Children 0 to 6 months of age: 110 mcg/day.
  • 7 to 12 months: 130 mcg/day.
  • 1 to 8 years: 90 mcg/day.
  • 9 to 13 years: 120 mcg/day.
  • 14 and older: 150 mcg/day.
  • The maximum dietary amount for children.
  • 1 to 3 years, 200 mcg/day.
  • 4 to 8 years, 300 mcg/day.
  • 9 to 13 years, 600 mcg/day.
  • 14 to 18 years (including pregnancy and lactation), 900 mcg/day.

Foods

Seaweed and other marine products, eggs, and cow's milk contain iodine naturally.

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References

  1. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/references.aspx?productid=35
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18590348?dopt=Abstract
  3. http://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/iodine
  4. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/iodine

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